Ancient India History

=>Indus Valley Civilization(IVC): dwelt from 3300 to 1300 BC. Harappa: discovered by R. D. Dayaram Sahni in 1921. Mohenjodaro: Discovered by R. D. Banerjee in 1922. Covered parts of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujrat, Rajasthan & parts of Western UP. Cities: Harappa-on Ravi in Pakistan. Mohenjodaro-on Indus in PakistanChanhu Daro-in Sindh in Pakistan. Lothal-in Gujrat. Kalibangan-in Rajasthan Banwali-in Hissar (Haryana).
Its notable features: Elaborate Town Planning, Roads, wells, Good drainage System. Crops: Wheat, Barley, Date palm & Cotton.   Pastime: Gambling. Worship:  Mother Goddess. Script:  Not deciphered yet, was not alphabetically but Pictographical. IVC culture lasted for 1000 years. Reason for its disappearance: 1) Invasion of Aryans 2)recurrent Floods 3) Social breakup of IVC 4)Earthquake.

=> The Vedic Literature:

@Vedas:    1) Rigveda: the oldest text in the world, a collection of hymns, recited at the time of Sacrificial rites or other rituals with utmost devotion. It contains 1028 hymns (SUKTAS) & divided into 10 Mandals( 1017 + 11  valakhilyas). 2) Sam Veda: a collection of melodies. 3) Yajur Veda: details the procedure for sacrifices. 4) Atharva Veda: Deals with Magic.

@Upvedas:

 

Vedas

Upvedas

Vedas

Upvedas

Rig Veda

Ayurveda

Yajur Veda

Dhanurveda

Sam Veda

Gandharva Veda

Atharva Veda

Shilpa Veda

 

@Brahmans: They explain the hymns of the Vedas in an orthodox manner.

@The Aranyakas: called Forest Books, written mainly for the hermits & students living
in forests.

@The Upnishads: the term means to sit down near someone & denotes a student sitting near his guru to learn. 108 Upanishads in number.  They are Main source of Indian Philosophy.

@Smritis: Explain rules & regulations in the Vedic Life. Main Smritis- Manusmriti, Naradsmriti, Yagyavalkyasmriti & Parasharsmriti.

 

@Vedangas:  There are 6 vedangas, as 1) Shiksha, 2) Kalpa 3)Vyakarana 4) Nirukta 5) Chhanda 6) Jyotisha. Trick to remember: ShiKVa Ni CHHa Jyo.

@Darshans:  There are 6 schools of Indian Philosophy known as Darshans, Which are mentioned here: (Acronym: NgVkSk YpPjVbv)

 

Darshan

Exponent

Darshan

Exponent

1)Nyaya

Gautama

2)Vaishesika

Kannada Rishi

3)Sankhya

Kapila

4)Yoga

Patanjali

5)Purva Mimansa

Jaimini

6)Uttara Mimansa

Badaryana or Vyasa.

 

@Upvedas:

Vedas

Upvedas

Vedas

Upvedas

Rig Veda

Ayurveda

Yajur Veda

Dhanurveda

Sam Veda

Gandharva Veda

Atharva veda

Shilpa Veda

 

=>Buddhism:  The Buddha: Also known as Sakya Muni or Tathagata, born in 563 BC on Vaishakha Purnima Day at Lumbini (near Kapil Vastu) in Nepal, Father: Suddhodhana, a Saka Ruler.       Mother Mahamaya died after 7 days of his birth, was brought up by stepmother Gautami. Married to Yashodhara at age of 16 years, enjoyed married life for 13 years, had a son named Rahul.

Left his palace at the age of 29 years (with Channa, the charioteeKanthaka, his favorite horse in the search of truth. ( This episode is called Mahabhinishkramana  or Great Reincarnation.& wandered for 6 years. He attained Enlightenment at 35 at Gaya in Magadh(Bihar) under Peepal tree. He delivered his 1st sermon at Sarnath( This episode is called Dharmachakrapravartan or Turning of the Wheel of Law). Attained Mahaparinirvana(death) at Kushinagar(Gorakhpur Distt.) in 483 BC at the age of 80 years.

 

=>Events Related to Tathagat: Mahabhinishkramana  or Great Reincarnation, Dharmachakrapravartan or Turning of the Wheel of Law, Mahaparinirvana or death

=> Buddhist Councils:    

Council

Place

Year

Chairman

Purpose

1st

Rajgriha

483 BC

Mahakassapa

Teachings of Buddha divided into 2 Pitakas.

2nd

Vaishali

383 BC

Sabakami

Followers divided into 2, Sthaviras & Mahasaṃghikas.

3rd

PataliPutra

250 BC

Mogalputta Tisa

The 3rd part of  Tripitaka was coded in Pali language.

4th

Kashmir

72 AD

Vasumitra

Divided into 2 as Mahayana & Hinayana

 

 

=>Jainism:    Founded by Rishabha, there were24 Thirthankaras (Prophets or Gurus), all were Kshatriyas.

 1st   Rishabhnath (Emblem: Bull), 
23rd  Parshwanath (Emblem: Snake) &   
24th   Mahavira (Emblem: Lion).

  ð Jain Councils:

Council

Place

Chairman

Purpose

1st

Pataliputra

Sthulbhadra

Divided into Digambars & Shvetambars

2nd

Vallabhi

Devridhigani

All sacred books were written.

=>Dynasties & Rulers in Ancient India:

1)Hiryanka Dynasty: (544 BC-460BC) Bimbsara – Contemporary of Buddha, Ajatshatru – Buddha died during his Rein, Arranged 1st Buddhist Council.

2)Shishunaga Dynasty: Founded by minister Shishunaga.

3) Nanda DynastyFounded by Mahapadnama, 1st Non-Kshatriya dynasty. Alexander attached India during their reign. Dhana Nanda faced Alexander.

4) The Maurya Dynasty(322-232 BC):  founded by Chandragupta Maurya, assisted by Chanakya(the author of “Arthashastra”), Chandragupta defeated Seleucus, the general of  Alexandar, Seleucus sent “Magasthenes”  (author of 'Indica' ) to his court. .  Bindusara:  Greek Ambassador, “Deimachos visited his court. Bindusara Was fondly called “Amitra Ghat” by Greek writers. Ashoka is regarded as the greatest king of all writers. Fought Kalinga war in 262 BC, then became a Buddhist. The emblem of the Indian Republic has been adopted from the 4 lion capital of Ashokan Pillar at Sarnath.
5)The Indo-Greeks: The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander, also know as Milinda.  He was converted to Buddhism by Nagasena( mentioned in “Milind Panho” or the questions of Milind). Greeks were the 1st rulers ton issue Gold Coins in India.

6) The Shakas:  The Greeks were followed by Shakas, who controlled a larger part of India.

7)The ParthiansThe most famous Parthian king was Gondophernes (AD 19-45), in whose reign St. Thomas is said to visit to India for the propagation of Christianity. 

8)The Kushans:  came from North Central Asia near Asia. Kanishka was the most famous king, who started a new Era “Saka” in 78 AD & is used by Govt. Of  India.

9)The Sunga Dynasty:  founded by Pushyamitra, ‘MAHABHASHYA” was written by “Patanjali” during their reign. 

10)The Kanva Dynasty (75-30 BC): A short-lived dynasty, founded by Vasudeva, who had killed Devbhutti. They were swept away by Satavahans of the Deccan.

11) The Satavahanas(60BC-250 AD): They were successors of Mauryas in The Deccan & Central India. Important King was “GautmiPutra Satakarni”. Issued Lead coins apart from Copper & Bronze. 

They are regarded as a bridge between North & South India.

12) The Pandyas: Their capital-Madurai, profited from trade with the Roman Empire.

13) The Cholas: Their kingdom was called Cholamadalam or coromandel, capital was  Kaveripattanam/Puhar.  The main source of wealth was a trade in Cotton Cloth, which maintained an efficient navy.

14) The Cheras: Their capital- Vanji (also called Kerala Country). Fought against the Cholas in 150 AD.

15) The Gupta Dynasty:    Chandragupta I-acquired the title of Maharajadhiraja, started the Gupta era in 319 AD, married Kumara Devi, the princess of Lichhavi Clan of Nepal.

Samudragupta- was a great warrior & was never Defeated. Historian Vincent Smith called the Napoleon of India. Chandragupta ii – took the title Vikramaditya.  The Iron Pillar Inscription fixed near Qutub Minar in Delhi mentions of him as Chandra. Had 9 celebrated gems (Navratna) in his court including Kalidas & Amarsimha, Fahien visited at his time.

16Pushybhuti Dynasty:  Harsha Vardhan- Hien Tsang (Prince of Travellers) visited during his reign. Harsha wrote 3 Plays: Priyadarshika, Ratnavali & Nagananda. Bhanabhatt was in his court, who wrote HarshaCharita & Kadambari.

17) Chalukyas( of Badami: Pulakesin-ii was their famous King. 
18) The Rashtrakuts: Their king, Krishna-I is remembered for constructing the famous rock-cut Kailasha temple at Ellora.

19) The Pallavas: Founder Simha Vishnu(their capital was Kanchi). Their greatest king - Narsimhavarman, who founded the town of Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram), which is adorned With beautiful Rock-cut Raths or Seven Pagodas. 

20) The Gangas: Their king Narsimhadeva constructed the Sun Temple of Konark.Another king Anantvarman Ganga built  famous Jagannath Temple of  Puri.  
21) The Cholas(AD 846-1279):  They are different from earlier Cholas. Founder- Vijayalaya  Capital-Tanjore. Real Founder was Rajaram 1, who founded the largest dominion in South India. He constructed Rajarajeshwari Temple (Also known as Brihadeshwar shiva temple at Thanjavur.

22) The Palas of Bengal: Founded by Gopala(750 AD) who was elected by People. Their Capital was Monghyr. Then came Dharmapala who founded Vikramshila University & revived Nalanda University
23) The Pratihars(or Gurjara Pratihara): Greatest King was Bhoja( also known as Mihir, Adivaraha  for his devotion to Vishnu).

24) The Rajputs:                           

                                                                                        

Rajput Clan

The Area

1)Pratihara or Pariharas

South Rajasthan

2)Chauhans

East Rajasthan

3)Chalukyas or Solankts

Kathiarwar

4)Parmars or Pawars

Malwa.

=>Few more points: 

1Jeevak was in the court of Bimbsar. 

2) Charak was with Kanishka

3) Harsha was Shaiva earlier.

4)Allora Kailasha Temple- Rastrakutas.
5) Chalukya King Pulkesin II defeated Harsha.

6)Alwars- Vishnu devotees

7)Nyanars-Shiv Devotees 

8) Chand Bar Dai wrote “Prithvi Raj Raso”, 

     (Biography of his patron King Prithvi Raj Chauhan.)

9) Khajurao Temple by Chandels. 

10) Ankorvat Temple- Suryavarman II. 

11) Ajanta-Ellora cave - Satvahan. 

12) Mahavira used PRAKRIT 

13) Buddha used Pali. 

14) Jain Books are called "AAGAM" 

15) Battle of Jhelam(Vitasta): Between Alexander & Porus.

=>Poets/Writers & their Patron Kings:

 

Poet/Writer

Patron King

Poet/Writer

Patron King

Amarsimha

Chandra Gupta2

Jinsena

Amoghavarsha

Ravi Kirti

Pulkesin II

Rajshekhar

Mahipala