The Sultanate

 

 

ð Slave-Sultans(Mamluks 1206-90): 
      Muhammad Gori returning back left his Indian Possessions in care of  former Slave –  Aibak
1) General Qutub-Ud-Din Aibak(1206-11): later, he severed his links with Ghazni & asserted independence. He died as a result of a  fall from his Horse while playing Chaugan. 
2) Iltutmish(1211-36): he consolidated the whole Ghurid acquisition in India as a well-knit & compact state. He gave a new Capital, Delhi to the state. Had 2 groups-1) Turkish Slave officers & 2) Tazik, the non-Turkish foreigners of high lineage. He organized Iqtas (was the grant of Revenue in lieu of salary)”, the army the currency. He introduced Coins as the silver tanka & the copper coin Jintal. He faced the menace of Mongols led by Ginghiz Khan. They used to attack Punjab & later conquered Punjab.

3) Raziya(1236-40):  She succeeded his father Iltutmish but faced the intrigues of Turkish Chiefs called “Chuhangani”, at the end she was murdered at Kaithal(Haryana) 
4) Balban(1265-85): He was himself a Turkish Chief, who rose from a minister to become a Sultan in 1265. He defended the state from Mongols, slowly broke the Power of Chuhalgami. He saved the sultanate but couldn’t found a dynasty. After him, a new Dynasty of Khiljis came.
ð Khiljis(1290-1320):  
Among discontented Afgan Nobles, using his Afgan bonds Jalaluddin Khilji wrested power in 1290, Was the 1st ruler to say Hindus are the majority, so she can't be an Islamic State.
Was succeeded by his nephew Alauddin Khilji(1296-1316)- Added an entrance door to Qutub Minar, Built Siri as his capital. Also built: Hauz Khas, Hahal Hazaar Satoon & Jamaat Khana Mosque.  He adopted the Title  Sikandar-i-Sani. He was the 1st Sultan to have a permanent Army. He paid his soldiers in cash, imported Horses. He started giving details of each soldier(Chehra) & each horse(Dagh).
ð The-Tughlaq-Dynasty(1320-1388):
1)Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq(1320-25): Built the Fortified city of Tughlaqabad & made it his capital. 
2)Muhammad Bin Tughlaq(1325-51): Most controversial figure in Indian History, Because of his ill-timed, mismanaged Projects. It was during his reign that the whole south India became independent with 3 major independent States- The Empire of Vijaynagar, The Bahmani Kingdom & the Sultanate of Madura.
3) Firoz Shah Tuglaq(1351-1388): Introduced 4 new taxes:

 

Name of taxes

Details of tax.

Any other feature

Kharaj

Equal to 1/10 of the produce of that land

Land Tax

Jaziya

A tax on Non-Muslim(even on Brahmins)

Religious tax

Zakat

Tax on property @2.5 %

Property tax

Khamas

1/5 of the booty captured in war.

After war

Firoz Shah built new towns Hissar, Firozabad, Fatehabad, Firoz Shah Kotla , Jaunpur.

ð The Sayyad Dynasty(1421-43):

Found by Khizr Khan & claimed to have descended from the prophet of Islam. Their  3 successors 1) Mubarak Khan(1421-33), 2) Muhammad Shah(1434-43) & 3)Alauddin Alam Shah(1443-51) were Incapable Leaders.

ð The Lodhi Dynasty(1451-1526):

They were Afghans by race, they revived the sultanate. 1)Bahlul Lodhi-in 1504, founded this city of Agra & made it his capital. 2)Ibrahim Lodhi-  was defeated & killed by Babur in the 1st Battle of Panipat in 1526.

Summary:After the death of Harsha, the Rajputs came into prominence on the political horizons of North India. The Rajputs were known for their bravery and chivalry but family feuds and strong notions of personal pride often resulted in conflicts. The Rajputs weakened each other by constant wrangling. The disunity among Rajputs allowed the foreigners (Turks) to enter India. The defeat of Prithvi Raj Chauhan (the greatest Rajput warrior of the time) at the hands of Mohammad Ghori, in the battle of Tarain 1192, marked a new chapter in the history of India. After the death of Mohammad Ghori, Qutub-Uddin Aibak (Ghori's lieutenant in India) founded the Slave Dynasty. With this, the Delhi Sultanate came into being. Aibak was followed by his slave, Iltutmism, who was succeeded by his daughter, Razia (1236 - 1239). Razia sat on the throne of Delhi for a short while. The Slave dynasty was followed by the Khalji, Tughlaq, Sayyids and Lodi dynasty. Some of the notable among the Sultanate rulers were Balban, Alauddin Khalji, and Mohammad Bin Tughlaq. Alauddin Khalji (1296 - 1316 AD) was not only a distinguished commander but also an able administrator. He is remembered for his military campaigns in the south as well as market reforms and price control measures. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1324 - 1351 AD) was a visionary who but unfortunately all his projects failed. His most controversial project was the transfer of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad. With the death of Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat, (at the hands of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire) the Delhi Sultanate came to an end. The Sultanate introduced, in the subcontinent, the Islamic concepts of society and governance, and thus prepared the ground for a dazzling interaction between two world civilizations.@@@@@@@@@@@@

सल्तनत काल की प्रमुख रचनाएँ 

(Sultanate Period Books) 

 पुस्तक लेखक 

🔰 🔰 

 📙तारीख-ए-फिरोजशाही जियाउद्दीन बरनी 

📘फतवा-ए-जहांदारीजियाउद्दीन बरनी 

📗तबाकर-ए-नासिर मिनहाज-उस-सिराज 

📕फुतूहात-उस-सलातीनख्वाजा अबू वक्र इसामी 

📙किताब-उल-रहलाइब्नेबतूत 

📘फुतूहात-उल-फिरोजशाही फिरोजशाह तुगलक 

📗तहकीक-ए-हिन्दअलबरूनी 

📕तारीख-ए-मुबारकशाहीयाहिया बिन अहमद सरहिन्दी 

📙तारीख-ए-सलातीन-ए-अफगान अहमद यादगार 

📘ताज-उल-मासिर हसन निजामी 

📗खजाय-नुल-फुतूहअमीर खुसरो 

📕तारीख-ए-अलाईअमीर खुसरो 

📙तुगलकनामा अमीर खुसरो 

📘ब्रह्मसूत्र रामानुजन 

📗तारीख-ए-मुहम्मदीमुहम्मद बिहमद खान 

📕मुनशत-ए-महरूमुल्तानी 

📙तारीख-ए-सिन्धमीर मुहम्मद मसूम 

📘तारीख-ए-यामिनी उत्बी 

📗हम्मीर मद-मर्दनजयसिंह सूरी 

📕गीत गोविन्दजयदेव 

📙हरकेलि नाटकजयदेव 

📘ललित विग्रहराजजयदेव 

📗प्रसन्न राघवजयदेव 

📕प्रद्युम्नाभ्युदयरविवर्मन 

📙पार्वती परिणयवामन भट्ट 

📘पृथ्वीराज रासोचंद बरदाई 

📗जाम्बवती कल्याणम कृष्णदेव राय 

📕राजतरंगिणी कल्हण 

📙बीसलदेव रासोनरपतिनाथ 

📘चंदावत मुल्ला