India Before the Delhi Sultanate



Interlude in Indian History (750-1200 AD)

Three powerful Kingdoms arose between 750-1000. They were Rashtrakutas-ruling in the Northern Deccan, The Pratiharas in Avanti & parts of Southern Rajasthan, and the Palas in Bengal. All three were in a continual Tripartite Struggle for the occupation of Kanauj & the Domination of Northern India.

=>The Rajputs & their Origin:   They are regarded as a tribe living in North India. They rose in political importance only in 10th century. They emerged in 4 clans. They were Pratihara, Chauhans, Solankis & Parmars. They claim they come from a fire family(Agni Kulas).  Besides these kingdoms, some other small kingdoms like Nepal, Kamarupa(Assam), Kashmir  & Utkala(Orissa).                                                      

Rajput Clan

The Area

1)Pratihara or Pariharas

South Rajasthan


East Rajasthan

3)Chalukyas or Solankis


4)Parmars or Pawars


ð Besides these kingdoms, some other small kingdoms like Nepal, Kamarupa(Assam),  Kashmir & Utkala(Orissa)Tomars of Delhi( built a city named Dhillika in 736), Chandellas in Bundelkhand, Guhilas in Mewar.

ð Arrival of Invaders: At that time the whole of India was divided into small kingdoms, which used to have struggle with their neighboring states paved the way to raids of Mahmud of Gazni who raided the country in the year of 1000 for her wealth, raided her 17 times in 25 years. He attacked several temples including Somnath temple in Gujrat. Another attack from North-West was led by Muhammad Ghori in the 12th century came through Gomal Pass in the year of1182. His 1st battle with Prithvi Raj Chauhan at Tarain in 1191 & Chauhan was successful but at 2nd battle in 1192 at the same place Ghori won. Thus, the kingdom of Delhi fell to Muhammad Ghori. They won Ganga-Yamuna Daob, Neighbouring areas, Bengal & Bihar before Ghori was assassinated in 1206. Which led to a new era in Indian History.

ð Growth of Regional Expression: At At that time regional languages like Marathi & Gujrati were fast emerging (from local Prakrit) & were to become the media of popular Expression. During that era, 2 outstanding works were: 1) Bhairavi’s Kirtarjuniya & 2) Dandin’s Dashakumara-Charita. Katha Sarit Sagar of Somadeva,

ð Other works:





Katha Sarit Sagar




Vikramanya Dev Charita


Geet Govind


ð Architecture & Sculpture:  Khajuraho Temple- Chandellas.


 => Ist Muslim Invader was: Mohammad -Bin-Qasim