·         

·               Zygote: the parent cell before Cell Division.

·        .     DNA: is found in Prokaryotic Cells

·        .     Mitosis: it is the Division of Nucleus.

·        .     Tonoplast: is the membrane covering the Vacuum.

·               Mitosis: is Equational Division; Meiosis: is Reductional Division

·               Sucrose is broken into glucose & Fructose during digestion.

·               Chromatids:  Each chromosome contains 2 chromatids.

·               Crossing Over: it is the term given to the process of exchange of genetic material between paired homologous chromosomes.

·               All Viruses: are nucleoproteins

·             Internode: is the distance between two nodes of leaves.

·            Tissues in Animals (4): Epithelial T, Connective T, Muscular T & Nerve T.

·             Vitamin K: it is produced by intestinal bacteria

·             Lichens are very sensitive to atmospheric Pollution

·             Legumes have a symbiotic relationship with Nitrogen Bacteria RHIZO-BACTERIA)

·             RNA types: mRNA, tRNA & rRNA.

·             Mutation: The sudden, discrete abrupt changes into genotype. It may happen by factors like X rays, Gamma Rays, UV radiations and Chemicals(E.g. Mustard Gas, Nitrous Acid, etc.)

·              Antigens are proteins.

·              Rh factor the named after Monkey

·              Heparin is a powerful anti-coagulant substance

·              Trypsin is secreted by Pancreas.

·              Diphtheria affects Throat

·              X’ Chromosome: its Extra presence causes Klinefelter Syndrome

·               Polio Virus infects brain & Spinal Chord

·              Tuberculin is a toxin released in T.B.

·              AB’ is a blood group that doesn’t have any antibodies of A, B or O group.

·              Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the Uterus.

·              Half of the sons of the couple will be COLOR BLIND if a color-blind man marries a daughter of a color-blind man.

·             Digestion of Sucrose gives Glucose and Fructose.

·             Gastric Juice: a digestive Juice is produced in Stomach.

·             Right Auricle: collects all the de-oxygenated blood brought from all parts of the body.

·             Sleeping Sickness: is caused by Protozoan.

·             Vitamin E: is responsible for anti-sterility activity.

·             Tetanus (Lockjaw): affects the nervous system.

·             Sample of Amniotic Fluids: is taken to determine the sex at prenatal stage.

·             Vitamin A: Retinol

·            Vitamin C helps in quick healing of wounds.

         

 

·              Stomach: is acidic in nature.

·              Cerebrum: is the seat of intelligence.

·             Infective Hepatitis: is caused by the virus.

·             Blood Group A: People with this blood group are more susceptible to diseases.

·              The Primary Colors: Red, Green, and Blue.

·              Eye Donation: here, only Cornea is transplanted.

·             Pericardium: is the outer covering of Heart.

·              Liver: is the largest gland in the human body.

·              Adrenal: is the most important Endocrine Gland of the Human Body.

·             E.E.G.: is a device to detect defects in the brain.

·             Leukemia (Blood Cancer): is caused in Humans by an increase in WBCs and the corresponding decrease in RBCs.

·             Fertilization: takes place in Fallopian Tube.

·             Triple Antigen: is administrated to children to prevent Diphtheria, Tetanus and Whooping Cough.

·             AB blood group: is universal Acceptor.

·            O” Blood Group: is universal Donar.

·            . Cataract: is the degeneration of Eye Lens.

·            . Neurons: are the basic units of the Brain.

·            . Athlete’s foot: a disease caused by Fungus.

·            . Embryo: is the name given to the fertilized ovum in its earliest stage of development.

·             . Amnesia: state of loss of memory or failure to recall the past.

·              Vitamin A: Found in carotene.

·              Ligaments: connect the bones.

·              Adrenaline: is the hormone that speeds up the heartbeats in Emergency.

·              Identical Twins: are formed at the time of fertilization.

·              Fraternal Twins: are formed at the time of fertilization.

·              Lymph Nodes (Lymph Glands): its primary function is to trap germs and prevent infection.

·             Systole: is the contraction of the heart to pump blood into.

·             Vena Cava: the largest vein in the human body.

·             Pulmonary Vein: is the major blood vessel that carries blood from the lungs to the heart.

·             Medulla Oblongata: is the part of the brain that controls heartbeats and respiration.

·             Glycogen: the liver stores digested sugar in this form.

·             Encephalitis: is a peculiar fever mostly attacking children.

·             

·                 

·               Ribs: there are 24 ribs in human beings.

·             Spinal Cord: affects the sense of balance in human being.

·             Aorta: the largest artery in the Human Body.

·               RBCs: are formed in the marrow of some of the bones.

·               Oviduct: is the tube that leads ova from the Ovary to Uterus.

·               The Adrenal Gland: is situated in Urethra.

·              The Kidney: is made up of Capillaries & Tiny Tubes called Nephrons.

·               Color Vision: facilitated by Cones on the retina of the eyes.

·               Accommodation of eye: is facilitated by Ciliary Muscles.

·             Renin Enzyme: facilitates in curding milk.

·                 Lactic Acid: is responsible for Muscle Fatigue.

·                 Fallopian Tubes: in human beings, fertilization occurs in these tubes.

·            Lack of Insulin: High sugar level in blood & presence of sugar in the Urine.

·              Blood Grouping: is done based on factors found in RBCs.

·              Hypothalamus: controls the temperature of Human Body.

·             People living in High Altitudes: Have high RBCs count.

·              Bones & Teeth are made up of: Calcium Phosphate.

·              Biopsy: is the microscopic Analysis of a Sample of Body Tissues.

·              Cerebellum: an athlete must have a well-developed Cerebellum.

·              Amniotic Fluid: surrounds a growing fetus in the Uterus.

·              The taste buds of tongue responsible for bitterness: lies at the back of the tongue.

·              Proteins: are not well stored in Human Body.

·              Liver: regulates blood glucose level.

·              TB: mainly attacks Longs.

·              The Smallest Bone: Stapes of Ear in the human body.

·              1st Molar: is the earliest permanent tooth to appear.

·               Osteopathology: is the study of Bones.

·             Addison’s Disease: is caused by a deficiency of adrenal cortex Hormones.

·              Liver: Stores the Urea.

·              Kidneys: maintains the Alkaline Nature of Blood.

·             Mineral Salts: are essential for proper contraction of Muscles

·             Hyoid:   The bone that has no joint.

·             Hydrochloric Acid(dilute): is secreted in the body which Helps in the Digestion the food.)

·             Mother: Gives the defective gene for color blind.

·             Melanin: determines the color of Skin.

·             Ovulation: is releasing of the ovum.

·             Tea: is helpful in strengthening the Heart.

·             Emulsification: is the action of bile on FATS.

·         ·      Mumps (Viral Diseases): here, the salivary Glands are enlarged.

·      Double Pneumonia: when both the lobes of the lungs are affected.

·      Fraternal Twins: is the result of simultaneous fertilization.

·      Stroke: When blood clots in the brain.

·    Calcium is the mineral Salt abundant in Human Body.

·      Hypothalamus: works as a Body’s Thermostat.

·      Hookworm: bore through intact skin.

·      Leguminous Plants: contain nodules in their Roots.

·      Animal Bones: are rich in Phosphorus.

·      Ethylene Gas: is added to the atmosphere surrounding them, artificially to accelerate the ripening of fruits.

·      Back Cross: is a cross of a hybrid with one parent.

·      Anemophilly: plant pollination helped by wind.

·      Adventitious Roots: are the roots that don’t grow from the main root but directly from the stem.

·      Aphis: A small green insect that sucks plant Juice.

·      Anaerobic Respiration: Chemical breakdown which doesn’t require Oxygen.

·      Root Cutting: is the usual way of propagating Banana.

·      Decomposition of Organic Matter by: Bacteria.

·      Tissue Culture propagation is: Vegetative Reproduction.

·      Osmosis takes place in Living Cells only.

·      Louis Pasteur: studied the process of fermentation in detail.

·        ·      Cell wall:  exclusively only in Plant cells.

·      Pollen grains:  are produced in the anther of the flowers.

    Fermentation: Sugar is converted into Ethanol & Carbon Dioxide.

·        ·      Saprophytes: are the bacterias living on dead animals.

·        ·      Fungal Diseases: are more prevalent During Monsoon.

·      DNA: is responsible for the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the other.

·      Parthenocarpy: is the process of fruit development in the absence of pollination.

·      Auxins: control the ripening of fruits In plants.

·      Geotropism: in plants, it is the growth of the root along and the stem opposite the line of gravity.

·      Chromosomes: their chief role is to regulate the hereditary traits of the organism.

·      Mitochondria: it is the site of respiration within the cell.

·      Iron: is an essential part of “Haemoglobin”.

·      Anti-sterility Vitamin: Vitamin E.

·      ATP: A molecule with a high energy bond.

·      Lichen has a symbiotic association with:  Algae and Fungi

Components

Source

Epinephrine

Adrenal

Estrogen

Ovaries

Oxytocin

Pituitary

Glycogen

Pancreas

·      Bacteriophage: a virus which infects a bacteria, It has both DNA, RNA.

·        ·      Serum: remains after the removal of Fibrinogen from plasma.

·      Antibodies: fight against Infection.

·      Blind Spot in Eyes: is called because rods and cones are absent in it.

·      Extra food taken into: is stored in the body as Fat and Glycogen.

·      Centrioles: are absent in Plant Cell/

·      Tendons: connect muscles to the bones.

·      Mitosis: is the process of the Division of Somatic Cells of an organism.

·      Glucose & Galactose: are the components of Milk Sugar.

·      Color of Eyes: Because of pigments in Iris.

·      Enzymes: proteinaceous in nature, specific in Nature.

·      High BP and urine glucose levels:  when Cells of Islets of Langerhans are worn completely.

 

·      Muscle Fatigue: due to the accumulation of Pyruvic Acid.·      Linnaeus: led the binominal Nomenclature.

·      Tissue: Group of Similar Cells.

·      Plants respire through: Leaf.

·      Hydroponics: is soil-less farming.

·      Biofertilizers provide mainly: Nitrogen.

·      Milk Fever in Cows occurs: due to lack of Calcium.

·      Foot & Mouth caused by: Virus.

·      Magnesium: is essential for the formation of Chlorophyll in leaves.

·      Copper Sulphate: is widely used as Fungicide.

·      Anthrax: A disease of the Cattle & Sheep is caused by Bacterium.

·      Root Knot: affects Tomato.

·      Malathion: is a Pesticide.

·      Sulphur: controls the growth of Fungi.

·      Leaching: refers to the percolation of water from the Lower layer of soil.

·      Principle of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics: was given by Lamarck.

·      Hyperparasite: is a parasite on another Parasite.

·      ATP: is known as “Energy Currency Of Cell”.

Mosses & their relatives: Are regarded as the 1st plants that originated on earth.

·        More Biology:

1.     Widal test is performed for - Typhoid fever

               The Widal test method is used to help make a presumptive diagnosis of enteric fever, also known as typhoid fever.

2. What does DNA stand for in biology? - Deoxyribonucleic Acid 

• It is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code.

• It is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development,      functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses.

• American biologist James Watson and English physicist Francis Crick is considered to be the inventor of DNA. 

3. Myrmecology is the study of: Ants

• Myrmecology is the branch of entomology that deals with ants.

4. The Sigmoid Colon is part of: Large Intestine

• The sigmoid colon is a short curving of the colon just before the rectum. It is part of the Large Intestine.  

5. Biologically, marriage should be avoided in between: Rh+ male and Rh– female

• Rh factor is a protein found in the blood. A person having Rh factor in the blood is called Rh-positive

whereas that who does not carry this protein in the blood is called Rh-negative. Marriage should be avoided in between Rh-negative female & Rh-positive male. This can be fatal for the mother as well as the baby of such parents.

6. Most fish do not sink in water because of the presence of the: Swim bladder and Air bladder

• Swim bladder help fishes to swim in water but air bladder helps to float because it contains air.

7. Who discovered the vaccine for smallpoxEdward Jenner

 • Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796. 

8. Who invented the polio vaccine (oral): Albert Sabin

• The first polio vaccine was the inactivated polio vaccine. It was developed by Jonas Salk and came into use in 1955. The oral polio

vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin and came into commercial use in 1961.

9. What is the normal blood sugar level of a human being -120-150 mg/dl 

10. What is the chemical name of Vitamin-B7- Biotin, Vitamin-B1- Thiamine; Vitamin-B2- Riboflavin, Vitamin-B6- Pyridoxine, Vitamin-B7 Biotin

11. In which color of light, the rate of photosynthesis is maximumin Redlight

• The rate of Photosynthesis is higher in red light while the rate of absorption is highest of blue light

12. What is the study of fermentation called- Zymology

• Ontology- The branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being. • Mycology- Study of fungus • Apiology- Study of Bees

13. Mad Hatter's Disease is caused by poisoning of - Mercury Poisoning

• Mad Hitler’s disease is a neurological disorder which affects the whole central nervous system

• Mercury exposure at high levels can harm the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs, and immune system of people of all ages.

14. White Lung disease is caused by prolonged inhalation of: Asbestos fiber

• Asbestosis is also known as White lung disease.

• It is mainly prevalent in mining, construction, manufacturing  of insulation, fireproofing, cement products etc.

• Persons with advanced cases of the disease have a dry cough. • There is no effective treatment for asbestosis.

15. Siderosis is caused by: deposition of Iron in body tissues

• It is also known as pulmonary siderosis and is also a form of Pneumoconiosis.

• Its symptom appears in long-range time. There is no cure for pulmonary siderosis.

16. What is controlled by Statin medicines? - Statin medicines are used to reduce high risk of Cardiovascular or Heart diseases

17. Who is the father of taxonomy - Carl Linnaeus

• Taxonomy is the system of classifying and naming organisms.

• It is the way living beings are divided up into Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.

18. In aerobic conditions, Glucose is converted into: Pyruvate

• In aerobic conditions, glycolysis converts one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate (pyruvic acid)&

generates energy in the form of two net molecules of ATP. • Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol of cells in all living organisms.

19. Which vaccine is used against tuberculosis – BCG Vaccine

• BCG or Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccine is used for the treatment of Tuberculosis. The vaccine is given by injection into the skin

20. The Sweat glands are present in which part of the human body? - Skin

• The sweat Glands are a type of exocrine glands and are present in Skin. These glands produce sweat by the war of a duct.

• There are two main types of sweat glands that differ in their structure, function, secretory product, mechanism of excretion, etc. • These are – Eccrine Sweat Glands and Apocrine Sweat Glands.

21. The scientific name of Tomato is: Lycopersicon esculentum

22. Which tissue transport food to various parts of a plant? – Phloem

 • Xylem transport water from roots to stems in plants.

• Phloem is the vascular tissue responsible for the transport of food from the source tissues.

23. The specific role of 'Vitamin K' is in the synthesis of: proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation

            • Prothrombin is an essential factor responsible for the coagulation of blood. 

24. Bio-fertilizers convert nitrogen to: Ammonia

• Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to

            living organisms.

• Nitrogen fixation is carried out naturally in the soil by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as Azotobacter.

25. Morphology of Chromosomes can be best studied at – Metaphase

• Metaphase is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and

coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase).

• These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.

 26. Increased RBC's in the blood leads to a condition called - Polycythemia

• People with this condition have thicker blood, which makes it harder for blood to circulate around the body.

27. Lacrymal glands are situated in the – Eye orbit 

• These glands secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film called lacrimal fluid, which moisten the surface of the skin, lubricate eyelids and wash away foreign bodies.

28. The locomotory organ of Amoeba is – Pseudopodia

29. What is the busiest muscle in the human body- Eye Muscle

30. What is the scientific name of Giant panda? - Ailuropodamelanoleuca

• SOME COMMONLY USED ZOOLOGICAL NAMES:

Blue whale-Balaenoptera

musculus Mouse-Mus musculus

Monarch butterfly-Danaus plexippus

Lion-Pantheraleo