Indian Modern History

          Diwani: Shah Alam II gave the privilege of Revenue Collection & delivering Civil Justice to East India Company for 26 lakh Rs.

·      NijamatShuja- Ud-Daula gave this power of administration, Military power & Criminal Justice to East India Company for 5 lakh Rs.

·   Other Names of East India CompanyHonourable East India Company, John Company, Company Bahadur.

·      Regulating Act of 1773: Supreme Court was set up in Kolkata, Governor of Bengal became Governor-General of Bengal (1st being Warren Hastings.), Governor of Bombay & Madras were made subordinates to Governor-General of Bengal.

·      Pitts India Act 1784:Board of Control was created, Power of Patronage to Board of Control, right of veto to Governor-General. No. of Court of Directors reduced to 3.

·      Mughal Emperor Jahangir: Gave permission to set up their Factory in Surat.

·      Mughal Emperor  Farrukhsiyar issued a firman to EIC in 1717 to trade freely in Bengal.

·      Haider Ali: established a modern Arsenal at Dindigul.

·      Murshid Quli Khan: appointed Royal agents Ijaradars to collect revenue directly from Ryots.

·      Allies of Mir Qasim in the battle of BuxorShah-Ud Daula & Shah Alam II.

·      Orissa Famine of Famine 1866:  During Sir John Lawrence.

·        ·       Walesly: Founded the Fort William college for English officers to learn Indian Culture etc.

·       British Government:  Gave one lakh rupees for the development of Education in India. In 1813.

     ·       William Bentick: asked for more development of English Language in India. In 1835.

    Wood’s despatch: !854, suggested the Government to take responsibility for the Development of Education. But the British decided to go    for DOWNWARD FILTRATION THEORY.

·       Universities were founded in: Bombay, Madras & Kolkata in 1857.

·       Hunter commission: 1882, to review the progress of Education since Wood’s despatch. It also suggested of vernacular as a medium of education in Primary Level.

·       The practice of Sat, Female infanticide: was banned and tagged it as Outlaw in 1829 by William Bentick.,

     Widow Remarry & Regulation of Age of marriage, both for Boys & Girls: in 1856. It was drafted by Lord Dalhousie and passed by Lord Dalhousie.

  The resistance of British Rule: The Revolt Of 1857:BackgroundDalhousie Regime added to the discontentment of Masses, like: 1) Treatment with Nana Saheb (S/O Bajirao II) 2) Religious lands were to pay taxes. 3)Sati, female infanticide, widow remarriage, caste/religious marks banned in Army.

     Different Centers of Revolt  & their Leaders:  

      Place

       Leaders

    Kanpur

    Nana Saheb assisted by Tatya Tope

    Lucknow

    Hazrat Mahal

    Jhansi   

    Rani Lakshmi Bai

    Bareli

    Khan Bahadur Khan.

·           End of Revolt: Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah was arrested & deported to RANGOON. Nana Saheb escaped to Nepal.

·          Indian States who turned loyal to British: Scindhia(Gwalior), Nizam of Hyderabad & several princes of Rajputana
Peasant Organizations:

1.    Agricultural Labour Union: by N.G. Ranga in Guntur in 1923.

2.     Kishan Sabha: In Bengal, Bihar, UP & Punjab in 1926-27.

3.    All India Kishan Sabha: By Swami Sahajanand Saraswati in 1936. All India Kisan Sabha (All India Peasants Union, also known as the Akhil Bharatiya Kisan Sabha), was the name of the peasants front of the Communist Party of India, an important peasant Movement.

 4.   Bakhsat Movement:  By Swami Sahajanand SaraswatiSaraswati organized the Bakasht Movement in Bihar in 1937–1938. "Bakasht" means self-cultivated. The movement was against the eviction of tenants from Bakasht lands by Zamindars and led to the passing of the Bihar Tenancy Act and the Bakasht Land Tax.[. He also led the successful struggle in the Dalmia Sugar Mill at Bihta, where peasant-worker unity was the most important characteristic.

     Few important Cultural Organizations:

·       Brahm Samaj: By Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1925, After the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, it bifurcated in two 1) under Keshav Chandra Sen, 2) under Debendra Nath Tagore.

·       Dharma Sabha: organized by Raja Radha Kant Deb.

·       Prarthna Samaj: Founded by Atmaram Panduranga in 1867. the movement gained momentum and popularity after scholar and reformer Mahadev Govind Ranade & R.G. Bhandarkar joined it.

·       Arya Samaj: Founded by Dayanand Saraswati in 1875 in Bombay. Later Head Quarter was shifted to Lahore. His book- Satyarth Prakash & his call “back to Vedas”. He criticized Child Marriage, Idol Worship. He started a movement named “SHUDDHI MOVEMENT”, to bring & admit back all those people who had abandoned Hinduism. His political Slogan was “INDIA FOR INDIANS”.

·       Ram Krishan Mission:  Ramakrishna mission (RKM) is a Hindu religious and spiritual organization that forms the core of a worldwide spiritual movement known as the Ramakrishna Movement or the Vedanta Movement. The mission is named after and inspired by the Indian saint Ramkrishna Paramhansa and founded by Ramakrishna's chief disciple Swami Vivekanand on 1 May 1897 The organization mainly propagates the Hindu Philosophy of Vedanta- Advaita and four yogic ideals– Jnana, Bhakti, Karma, and Raja Yogi.

 =>Theosophical Society: The Theosophical Society is an organization formed in the United States in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy. The Theosophical Society was founded by Madame Blavatsky and Col. Olcott in New York in 1875. The founders arrived in India in January 1879 and established the headquarters of the Society at Adyar near Madras.

·     => Aligarh Movement: by Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan to unite all Indian Muslims to follow Modern Science & British Rule. Also, he urged to accept services under British Govt. He criticized the system of “ PIRI & MURIDI”. He propagated his ideas in his magazine “TEHZIB Ul AKLAQ”. He founded a college in Aligarh in 1875, viz.AMU.

 

·       The Deoband Movement: Ulema under M. Qasim  Nanotavi & Rashid Gangehi founded “the school of Deoband” in Saharanpur Distt. Of UP. It welcomed the foundation of INC and issued a decree against Sayad Ahmad Khan.

  =>Genesis of Indian Freedom Movement

·       A Britain Committee of INC was founded in London, it had its magazine, Named: India.

·       S. N. Banerjee was the 1st person to go to jail while doing his duty as a Journalist.

·       British promoted Sayyid Ahmad Khan & Raja Shiv Prasad of Banaras to create a rift in the Harmony in Indian masses.

·       =>Lal, Bal, Pal: were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak & Bipin Chandra Pal.

 =>Partition of Bengal: Vice Roy Lord Curzon, who had come in India in 1889, Bengal had turned into the nursery of Young Revolutionaries. British Government felt the fear raised by Integration of Hindus & Muslims Revolutions. To create a rift between Hindus & Muslims, they visualized the plan of DIVIDE & RULE. Hence, divided into 2 state West Bengal(With Hindu Majority) & East Bengal(With Muslim Majority). They announced this partition in 1905. Swadeshi & Boycott Movement were used by People to raise a protest against this scheme.

 =>Congress Session Of INC-1906-Kolkata: Presided by Dada Bhai Naoroji, a demand  for Attainment of Swaraj for India(came for the 1st time)

    =>Surat Split(1907): INC saw a split in itself, between Extremists & Moderators. Moderators wanted to modify the Kolkata proposal & Extremists wanted to intensify it.

==>Formation Of Muslim League: League was formed by Agha Khan & Nawab Salimullah of Dacca, to promote a sense of loyalty towards the British Government & to protect political rights & other interests of Muslims.

==>Marley Minto Reforms(1909): 1)one Indian, S.P. Sinha was inducted into Governor-General Executive Council. 2)Separate Electorate was introduced.

==>Indian National Movement during 1st World War(1914-18): India was declared as a party on the side of Britain. That implies they can use Indian resources & Soldiers without any sanction. That enraged Indian Leaders, but moderates were in the view of helping Britain.

   =>The Lucknow Session of INC(1916):  both Extremists & Moderates attended this session unitedly, Even INC & Muslim league came together(Through a pact called Lucknow Pact )

==>The Lucknow Pact: came at Annual session of INC at Lucknow in 1916.

  =>Results of Lucknow Pact

·        ·The Lucknow Pact gave the impression of Hindu-Muslim unity in the national political scene. But it was only an impression and short-lived. The agreement between the parties on a separate communal electorate formally established communal politics in India.

     Through this pact, the INC also tacitly accepted that India consisted of two different communities with different interests.

    This pact pushed the hitherto less relevant Muslim League into the forefront of Indian politics along with the Congress Party.

==>Home Rule League: Two such leagues were formed in India at the same. One by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in Poona in April 1916 & other in Madras by Annie Basent in September 1916 both aimed for a Home Rule or Self Government in India.

==>Partition of Bengal undone:  This act was annulled in 1911, which gave enough confidence to Extremists.

==>Gaddar Movement: Founded in San Francisco(US), by Sohan Singh Bhakna in1913.The aim was an armed revolution against the British in India. Weekly:  Ghadar, Recognised by Lala HardaRyal. Who had founded an “Indian Independence Committee” in BerlinHe wanted to moralized NRIs for this cause to send explosives.

==>Gandhian Phase: Gandhiji came back in India in 1915, His 1st attempt was in Champaran(Bihar) Satyagraha in 1917, then Ahmadabad Textile Mills and Kheda.

==>Rowlett Act 1919: Introduced in Government of India Act, 1919 also known as Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, it empowered Govt.to put anybody in Jail, suggested by British Sedition Committee(1917). Gandhi Ji set up ROWLETT COMMITTEE”.

 

==>Government of India Act 1919: Government of India Act, 1919 also known as Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms which came into force in 1921. It was instituted in the British Indian polity to introduce the Diarchy, i.e., rule of two which means executive councilors and popular ministers.

==>Khilafat Movement: To force the British govt. to change their attitude towards Turkey. A khilafat committee was formed containing Ali brothers, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad and Haqim Ajmal Khan. Gandhi suggested to khilafat committee for a non-violent Non-Cooperation Movement. Gandhi found it as an opportunity to cement Hindu & Muslim harmony & to get Muslims in Freedom Movement

>The Non-Cooperation Movement(1920): Started by Gandhi Ji demanding Govt. to: 1) Redressal of Punjab wrong, Khilafat wrongs 2) Establishing “SWARAJ”.

  To fund this Movement, he founded a “SWARAJ FUND”. Visit of Prince of Wales in 1921 saw country-wide protests, Hartals. (Sadly, Tilak Ji expired on Aug 1,1920). During That Movement, people gave up titles conferred on them.

==>Chaura-Chori: witnessed the burning of Police picket by masses( 5 Feb 1922). Resulting, Gandhi  Called off the movement(12 Feb.)

==>Swaraj Party(1923): sudden call of the movement, left a faction(led by Patel & Rajendra Prasad Called No-Changer) in INC disgusted. They opposed entry into Council, while the other faction including C.R. Das & ML Nehru(Called as Swarajists) advocated entry to expose weaknesses of Govt within. On December 22, C.R. Das formed a new party named ‘SWARAJ PARTY’. Thus, Das and Nehru thought of contesting elections to enter the legislative council to obstruct a foreign government. Many candidates of the Swaraj Party got elected to the central legislative assembly and provincial legislative council in the 1923 elections. In these legislatures, they strongly opposed the unjust government policies.  

  =>1st split in Swaraj Partyinto No changers & Swarajists,

  =>2nd  split in Swaraj Party(1925):  Into Responsive Cooperation Party ty & Swaraj Party.

           The Responsive Cooperation Party was a political party operating in the Indian independent Movement and was established by M.R.Jayakar, B.S.Moonje, N.C. Kelkar and others. The party was a splinter from the Motilal Nehru -led the Swaraj Party, which was further split by the formation of the Independent Congress Party and the Nationalist Party. The Responsive Cooperationists had become opposed to the concept of Non-Cooperation with the government of the British Raj and Jayakar's move away from the Swaraj Party was evident by October 1925.

  =>The Simon Commission(1928): British The government appointed this  Commission to look into the working of the Government of India, Act 1919. & to suggest further reforms. It was headed by Sir John Simon. It was all white commission with no Indian as Member. That inflamed Indian Masses.

   =>Delhi Proposals:  Few members of the Muslim League were not ready to go for the boycott of Simon Commission, then, after persuading Jinnah, compromise proposal evolved which is called Delhi Proposal in 1927. Its features were:1) doing away with separate electorates 2) & 1/3 Muslim representation & reserved seats for minority. A faction of the Muslim League led by Mohammad Shafi refused to give up separate electorate & decided to work with Commission.  & Hindu Communalists bitterly opposed.

   =>The Nehru Report(1928): was finalized at Lucknow in 1928, was drafted by M.L. Nehru & Tej Bahadur Sapru. It formulated a Dominion Status Constitution, Joint Electorate everywhere, Reserved Seats For Muslims at the center & provinces with Muslim minority, not Numerical Minority. But, by March 1929, Jinnah joined Shafi and forwarded 14 points, including:1)New provinces 2)1/3 seats at Centre 3)Federation with complete  Provincial Autonomy. This report  is memorable for its framework of Subjects List for Centre 7 provinces & Fundamental Rights.

 =>Butler Report( March 1929): Lord Irwin set up to go into paramountcy question under Harcourt Butler.

 =>Simon Boycott: landed at Bombay on Feb 3,1928, saw all major cities & town a complete Hartal. Led boycott of British Goods. Meanwhile, Lala Lajpat Rai received fatal injuries in the hands of the police in Lahore. Congress decided that if the govt. didn’t accept the demand  for Dominion Status by end of the year, then would ask for complete Independence accompanied by Civil Disobedience Movement.

=>Revolutionary Terrorism: Getting disillusionment with the congress leadership among educated young Indians, they resorted to Revolutionary terrorism especially in Bengal, Punjab & UP.E.G. an Englishman was killed by Gopinath Saha in Jan. 1924, though the real target was Calcutta Notorious Police commissioner Tegart. Then,

     Sachin Sanyal & Jogesh Chandra Chatterji, Bengalis living in UP organized the Hindustan  Republican Association & started raising funds through Decoities. After the Kakori Train Hold-up of August 1925, most members were arrested.

Left out member drew in a new recruit & cladding, made links with Punjab group under Bhagat Singh & Constituted Hindustan Socialist Army in September 1928.

 =>Hindustan Socialist Republican Army: In Bengal, revolutionaries were led by Surya Sen of Chittagong, they seized the local armory on April 18,1930, and proclaimed independence in the name of Indian Republican Army.

  =>Saunders Murder:  December 1928 as a revenge for the assault on Lala Laj Pat Rai,

  => Bombing the Legislative Assembly: by Bhagat Singh & Batukeshwar Dutt on April 8,1928.(aimed to make the deaf hear), they were arrested and “Lahore conspiracy case” was initiated.

   =>Attempt to Blow Irwin’s Train: Near Delhi in December 1929, AND similar series of terrorism actions in Punjab & UP were seen.//Bhagat Singh wrote: “Why am I an atheist”.

   =>Jatin Das: another Member of HSRA died in jail after 64 day Hunger strike for improvement in the status of Political prisoners.

   =>Irwin Offer( October 31,1929): to get an attendance of INC member at next Round Table Conference, it lured by offering:

       1.Withdraw all ordinances and end prosecutions    2 Release all political prisoners, except those guilty of violence   3Permit peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops

      4. Restore confiscated properties of the Satyagrahis 5. permit free collection or manufacture of salt by persons near the sea-coast 6. Lift the ban over the Congress.

 =>But, Gandhi Ji offered to accept this offer on 4  Conditions(November 2): 1)Conference should discuss the details of the Dominion Status. 2) Congress should have majority representation in the conference. 3)There should be an amnesty & policy of general conciliation 4) The conference should not discuss the basic principle of Dominion Status. Irwin rejected these conditions on December 23.   

=> Lahore Congress & Purna Swaraj:  This session under the presidentship of J.L. Nehru adopted the creed of “Purna Swaraj” instead of Dominion Status. The national Tricolor was unfurled on the bank of Ravi amidst cries of Vande-Matram & Inqilab Zindabad. Jan 26  was fixed for 1st independence day.A decision of preparing for the Civil Disobedience campaign was taken.

=> Civil Disobedience Movement(1930-31):  Gandhi Ji's Ultimatum in 11 points:  1) 50% cut in army expenditure & Civil Service Salaries, 2) Total Prohibition 3)Release of political prisoners. 4) Reform of the CID department 5) regarding firearms license 6) lowering of Rupee-Sterling exchange ratio, 7)Textile protection 8) abolition of salt tax 9) End of monopoly on salt production. 10) Reservation of coastal shipping for Indians only 11)50% reduction in Land Revenue. Since Govt. sent no response, so Civil Disobedience was the only resort to take of. Gandhi Ji started it with a break of Salt law. 

  => Dandi March(March 12-April 6): He started from Sabarmati Ashram to Sea coast. Interestingly a large no. of women also participated, that movement attracted worldwide attention & publicity.

     This movement accompanied by Boycott of foreign cloth & liquor. After the arrest of Gandhi Ji, Working Committee sanctioned non- payment of revenue & chowkidari Tax & violation of Forest Law.

 =>1st Round Table Conference: While CDM was still continuing, The report of Simon commission was published. It made no mention of Dominion Status. The viceroy suggested a Round Table Conference on July 9 under the chairmanship of P.M. Ramsay MacDonald. Congress along with business fraternity (except Homi Modi) kept away from the conference. But, Muslim leaders & liberals like Sapru, Chintamani, Srinivas Shastri, and princes were attendees. But, it failed especially on minority & untouchable issue.

  => 2nd RT conference ( September 17,1931 to December 13, 1931) Mahatma Gandhi accepted the offer to attend the RTC. But,  the matter of Minority issue, 2 new provinces creation came as deadlock to 2nd RTC. Here, the notorious Communal Award was revoked.

 => 3rd RTC(November 17-24,1932): Some 46 delegates attended the conference. Here, some features of GoI act 1935 were added.

 => Communal Award (1932): For  minorities & depressed class, Mahatma Gandhi objected it & went to a FAST UNTO DEATH” in Yarvada Jail. Consulting it with B.R. Ambedkar a compromise pact resulted which is called “Poona Pact”, which said of reservation in Hindu Seats for Depressed Class.

 =>August Offer (1940): By Lord Linlithgo on August 8,1940. It was a set of proposals for Congress to secure cooperation in world war II ( In March 1940, Congress met at Ramgarh in Bihar in its annual session. Congress passed a resolution offering the British Government support in the war, if a provisional National Government is set up at Centre.), promising the expansion of the Executive Council of the Viceroy of India to include more Indians, the establishment of an advisory war council, giving full weight to the minority opinion, and the recognition of Indians' right to frame their own constitution ... But, congress didn’t give it in. Then, they gave an alternate proposal: 1) After the war, a representative “Constitution Making Body” shall be appointed immediately after the war. 2) The number of the Indians in the Viceroy’s Executive council will be increased. 3) war Advisory Council would be set up.

  =>The Individual Satyagraha(1940): British Govt. dragged India in world war II without consulting Indian Leaders. Objecting to it, Congress ministries resigned.INC decided of Civil Disobedience Movement as Individual Satyagraha. Vinoba Bhave was the 1st Individual Satyagrahi.

  => The Cripps Nission(1940): Having seen a defeat by Japanese, British Govt. was forced to persuade Indian Leader to get a cooperation in World War II. The Japenese had won Burma & Eastern India Areas. So British Govt. offered to open Talks with Indian Leaders. Other ally Nation Heads also forced Britain. So, when found it unavoidable, they sent Sir Stafford Cripps to hold talks with Indian Leaders. The talks failed as the mission offered 1) Dominion Status but  2) Constitution Assembly, where members from princely states w’d be nominated by Princes, not by People.

 

Question :* स्वतंत्र भारत के प्रथम गवर्नर जनरल कौन था।

 *Answer :* लॉर्ड माउंटबेटन

 

*Question :* भगत सिंह को फांसी की सजा सुनाने वाला न्यायाधीश कौन था।

 *Answer :* जी.सी. हिल्टन

 

*Question :* महात्मा गांधी के राजनीतिक गुरु कौन थे।

  *Answer :* गोपाल कृष्ण गोखले

 

*Question :* सबसे कम उम्र में फांसी की सजा पाने वाला क्रांतीकारी कौन था।

 *Answer :* खुदीराम बोस

 

*Question :* कांग्रेस का विभाजन कब व किन दलों में विभक्त हुई।

 *Answer :* 1907 नरम दल व गरम दल (सूरत अधिवेशन)

 

*Question :* इंग्लैंड में भारतीय सुधार समिति की स्थापना किसने की।

 *Answer :* दादा भाई नौरोजी

 

*Question :* साइमन कमीशन को और किस नाम से जाना जाता है।

 *Answer :* वाइट मैन कमीशन

 

*Question :* कांग्रेस के प्रथम मुस्लिम अध्यक्ष कौन थे।

 *Answer :* बदरुद्दीन तैयबजी

 

*Question :* डंडा फौज का गठन किसने किया था।

 *Answer :* चमनदीव (पंजाब)

Question :* निरंकारी आंदोलन की शुरूआत किसने की थी।

 *Answer :* दयालदास

*Question :* मराठा साम्राज्य के संस्थापक कौन थे।

 *Answer :* शिवाजी

 

*Question :* शिवाजी द्वारा लगाए गए दो कर कौन से थे।

 *Answer :* चौथ, सरदेशमुखी

 

*Question :* लम्पट मूर्ख किसे कहा जाता था।

 *Answer :* जहांदार शाह को

- भारतीय संविधान के महत्वपूर्ण प्रश्न -

 

*Question :* रंगीला बादशाह किसे कहा जाता था।

 *Answer :* मुहम्मदशाह को

 

*Question :* ईरान का नेपोलियन किसे कहा गया।

 *Answer :* नादिरशाह को

 

*Question :* मुगल दरबार में आने वाला प्रथम अंग्रेज कौन था।

 *Answer :* कैप्टन हॉकिन्स

 

*Question :* गुरुमुखी लिपी का आरंभ किसने किया।

 *Answer :* गुरु अंगद ने

 

*Question :* खालसा पंथ की स्थापना किसने की।

 *Answer :* गुरु गोविन्द सिंह ने

uestion :* अजमेर में मेयो कॉलेज की स्थापना किसने की।

 *Answer :* लॉर्ड मेयो

 

*Question :* शिमला समझौता कब हुआ।

 *Answer :* 1945 ई.

 

*Question :* फोर्ट विलियम कॉलेज की स्थापना किसने की।

 *Answer :* लार्ड वेलेजली ने

 

*Question :* गदर पार्टी की स्थापना किसने की थी।

 *Answer :* लाला हरदयाल, काशीराम

 

*Question :* फॉरवर्ड ब्लॉक संस्था के संस्थापक कौन थे।

 *Answer :* सुभाष चंद्र बोस

 

*Question :* तात्या टोपे का वास्तविक नाम क्या था।

 *Answer :* रामचन्द्र पांडुरंग

More Modern History

   =>Quit India Movement (QIM,1942): QIM was passed on August 8,1942 in the AICC Bombay Session, asking people to assume the leadership if AICC leaders get arrested. On that day Gandhi Ji made his famous “Do or Die” speech, opposing this resolution 2 Communist members of AICC, namely Bhulabhai & Rajaji resigned. Govt. The showed the most brutal face, armed with draconian measures & suppressed the basic civil liberties. Also, the adversities meeting Britain in WW 2 added to the mood of Indian masses. On August 9, Gandhi Ji and many members of CWC members were arrested. Here, people took their own course & turned Violent. This movement was predominantly urban and had elements like hartals, strikes & clashes with police. In some areas, secret parallel- governments were formed like Tamluk in Midnapur, Satara in Maharastra and Talchar in Orissa. Govt. resorted to intense repression unleashed by Govt. Wavell came as the Viceroy in October 1943.

   =>Indian National Army (1943):)Subhash Chandra Bose joined in 1943, in Singapore as Azad Hind Fauz. The idea was conceived by Mohan Singh Bakhna( An officer in British Indian Army) at Mallaya. 1st division of INA in July 1943 with Japenese Help.They adopted Tricolor flag, had an “Azad Hind Radio” Bose gave the Slogan “Jai Hind” & “You give me your blood, I will give you Freedom” & a War slogan ‘Delhi Chalo’.British Govt. was forced by US Govt& Allies Power. Another Regiment was formed named “Rani Jhansi Regiment”. Bose  was the 1st person to call Gandhi Ji “Father of Nation”. Bose set 2 head Quarters of INA in 1) Rangoon & 2) Singapore. In May 1944, captured “Mowdok” & hoist Tricolour. Japan also captured Andaman & Nicobar & gave to Bose, who renamed Andaman as “Shaheed” & Nicobar as “Swaraj”. But, the Fortune of War turned otherwise to the Japanese side & was forced to retreat from the Indo-Bhutan border. Then, INA surrendered before the British Army in  1945.   

 

   => INA Trials:   Advocates for Defence – Bhula Bhai Desai, Tej Bahadur Sapru & Aruna Asaf Ali. The Trials were held at Red Fort. The accused: Shah Nawaj Khan, Gurudyal Dillon & Prem Sahgal.

   =>Day of Deliverance:  was a celebration day marked by the All-India Muslim League and others on 22 December 1939 during the Indian independence movement

=>Pakistan Day: Pakistan Resolution Day, also Republic Day, is a national holiday in Pakistan commemorating the Lahore Resolution passed on 23 March 1940 and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan during the transition of the Dominion of Pakistan to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 23 March 1956 making Pakistan the world's first Islamic Republic. A Republic Day parade by the Armed Forces are often part of the celebrations.

   =>CR Formulae(1944):  CR formulae came to resolve the deadlock for Muslim League cooperation. This formula included a tactic acceptance of the Demand of Pakistan. [.but, will be applicable only if there is a transfer of full power by Britain.]. This formula said: 1) Common center. 2)All were to vote in the plebiscite, while League wanted only Muslims to vote.

   =>Desai-Liaqat Pact (1945): For formation of Interim Govt.- 1)Equal No. of members will be nominated by the Congress & Muslim League. 2) There will be a representation of minorities.

      Failed as no consent between Congress & Muslim League.

 

    =>Hindu Mahasabha:  Punjab Hindu Sabha formed in 1909, its leaders were: U.N. Mukherjee & Lal Chand. (Lal Chand declared: “I m Hindu 1st & Indian Later”). All India Hindu Mahasabha by Hindu Leaders in Allahabad in 1915 under President Ship of Maharaja of Kasim Bazar. Under the leadership of V D Savarkar in 1938 Hindu Mahasabha got its Political Wing with the popular concept of Hindu Rashtra. Next Dr. Shayama Prasad Mukherjee gave it a more political look, to counter Muslim League Demand of Pak, Mahasabha raise of Akhand Hindustan. RSS founded by Hedgewar  in 1925., its doctrine coded in booklet “we”.

=> Wavell Plan & Shimla Conference(1945): To make Muslim league rowing in the same boat, Viceroy came out with a plan. He summoned a conference in Shimla of all political parties in 1945. It related to the formation of the Interim Government. The features of his plan: 1)Except Governor-General & Chief In commanders all other members in Governor-general Executive Council will be Indians. 2) There will be an equal representation of Muslims & Hindus 3) Thus Constituted Council will be the Interim Government. 4) Governor-General will have the power of Veto on the advice of Ministers.

Here, the Muslim League wanted only itself to choose all Muslim members. Congress opposed it, so this plan failed. At this point, British PM & Wavell announced the election of 1945-46. =>Election of !945-46Congress won all NWFP while Muslim League got a majority in Bengal & Sindh.

=>Revolt Of Rin Ratings91946): On February 18,1946, in Bombay & Karachi for discriminative treatment to Indian Sailors. They hoisted Congress & Muslim League flags on ships, By February 22, spread all over the country. The Hindu-Muslim students & workers supported them. Sardar Patel & Jinnah manage to persuade them & strike ended on 23rd

=> Cabinet Mission Plan(1946): Consisted of 3 members,vizLord Patrick-Lawrence  (Secretary of state for India), Sir Stafford Cripps ( President of the Board of Trade) & A.V. Alexander ( 1st Lord of Admiralty) came on March 19, 1946, it was directed earlier that the issue of Minorities should not be an obstacle, They talked to all leaders but met with no way out. So they brought out their own proposal in May 1946, like:

1)Will be a union of India, comprises of all British Provinces, all princely states with the center as the nucleus of power. There was no idea of Pak, but India will be 3 groups. 2) Constitution Assembly members will be elected on the communal basis by provincial legislative assemblies. 3) An Interim Government was recommended to have representation of all major political parties. Muslim League accepted this proposal in June !946 while Congress accepted later but declined to make a government.

 => Formation of Interim Govt. & Direct Action Day: League was much happy as Congress opted to step out at that time League offered to make a government But, Viceroy didn’t entertain this offer. League withdrew its support but  Congress accepted the plan, Persuaded Nehru to take the office. He was appointed as a Vice President of The Union in September 1946, It enraged Muslim league, they proclaimed of “Direct Action Day” on 16 August 1946 with a war cry Lekar Rahenge Pakistan, Ladkar lenge Pakistan”. Then, India witnessed a bloody riots in Bengal, Bihar. Muslim League joined in Interim Govt in October, !946. League adopted the obstructionist tactics and it led to the fresh riots in E.Bengal.

Attlee Announcemwnt (20 feb, 1947): He stated his plans to transfer the power in India to responsible hands not later than June 1948. That gave birth to chaotic conditions in India. The Muslim League was keen on getting a Muslim Nation. Hereafter, Mahatma Gandhi announced “INDIA WILL BE DIVIDED ONLY OVER MY BODY”. The Muslim League kept on following its ways of Bloody violence, especially in Kolkata, Punjab & NWFP.

=> Lord Mountbatten came to India as ViceroyThe Mountbattens arrived in India in March 1947 to an atmosphere of distrust and conflict. Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi and the INC wanted a united, secular India, while the Muslim League, led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, was pressing for the division of India to create a separate Muslim state: Pakistan.

=>Lord Mountbatten Plan (June 3, 1947):  He found a very gruesome situation in India, He was given a task to transfer the power in united Indian Hands but the question of partition made the things worst he realized soon partition is inevitable since no compromise was in sight so he forwarded his own plan  (which is also called “Plan Of V.P. Menon” & “June 3rd Plan”). Its Provisions were:

1) Provincial legislative assembly of Punjab & Bengal will meet in 2 groups,1 for Muslim majority areas and  2nd group for the rest of the population. Would vote for Partition if either vote for Partition. Province will be parted.

2) The provincial legislative assembly of Sindh would its own decision. There will be a referendum in the NWFP & Sylhet District of Bengal. 4) A boundary Commission under REDCLIFF constituted.

Attlee Announcemwnt (20 feb, 1947): He stated his plans to transfer the power in India to responsible hands not later than June 1948. That gave birth to chaotic conditions in India. The Muslim League was keen on getting a Muslim Nation. Hereafter, Mahatma Gandhi announced “INDIA WILL BE DIVIDED ONLY OVER MY BODY”. The Muslim League kept on following its ways of Bloody violence, especially in Kolkata, Punjab & NWFP.

=> Lord Mountbatten came to India as ViceroyThe Mountbattens arrived in India in March 1947 to an atmosphere of distrust and conflict. Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi and the INC wanted a united, secular India, while the Muslim League, led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, was pressing for the division of India to create a separate Muslim state: Pakistan.

=>Lord Mountbatten Plan (June 3, 1947):  He found a very gruesome situation in India, He was given a task to transfer the power in united Indian Hands but the question of partition made the things worst he realized soon partition is inevitable since no compromise was in sight so he forwarded his own plan  (which is also called “Plan Of V.P. Menon” & “June 3rd Plan”). Its Provisions were:

1) Provincial legislative assembly of Punjab & Bengal will meet in 2 groups,1 for Muslim majority areas and  2nd group for the rest of the population. Would vote for Partition if either vote for Partition. Province will be parted.

2) The provincial legislative assembly of Sindh would its own decision. There will be a referendum in the NWFP & Sylhet District of Bengal. 4) A boundary Commission under REDCLIFF constituted.

=> Outcomes of Mountbatten Plan:

     No.

     Part

     Method

     Decision

      Outcome

    1.

    Punjab & Bengal

    Legislative     Assembly to decide

    For Partition

     E. Bengal & West Punjab joined Pakistan

    2.

    Sind

    Legislative Assembly to decide

    Joined to Pak.

    Resulted as a district in East Bengal.

    3.

    NWFP & Sylhet

     Referendum

    Joined to Pak.

     joined Punjab.

    4.  

    Princely States

     Asked to join Pak or India

 

 =>Indian Independence Act, 1947:  To give effect to 3rd June plan, this bill was introduced on 4th July, passed and on 18th July got Royal assent. The Dominion of Pakistan was inaugurated in Karachi 14 august 1947. On 12’ O clock, Nehru gave his famous speech “Tryst with Dynasty”, Mountbatten as Governor-General & Jawahar Lal Nehru as Prime Minister.  While Gandhi Ji made a tour to hate, violence & riot-torn Bengal.

  => Integration of Princely States: As this plan had said nothing clear about princely states. They had to join either Pak or India before 15th august for which they had to sign “Instrument of Accession”. Most of them decided either way(By 15 august, 562 states joined India), few declared their Independence(Like Kashmir, Hydrabad & Junagarh), which were taken into Indian Union by effective tactics by Patel & his secretary V.P. Menon. Small princely states joined neighboring provinces & disappeared altogether.

   memorize all Governor Generals and Viceroys of British India (1773–1948)

GOVERNOR GENERALS


हँसेगा कौन ? जॉन वेल्ला बारा मिनिट हँसेगा हैमर लेकर


Warren Hastings -
हँसेगा

     Lord Cornwallis - कौन

    Sir John Shore - जॉन

    Lord Wellesley - वेल्ला

   Sir George Barlow - बारा

   Lord Minto I - मिनिट

    Lord Hastings - हँसेगा

   Lord Amherst - हैमर लेकर

   बंटी मत कैफे में ओक, एलियनब्रो हरदिन हाउस क्लीनिंग करता है


9. Lord William Bentick -
बंटी


10. Lord Metcalfe -
मत कैफे में


11. Lord Auckland -
ओक


12. Lord Ellenborough -
एलियनब्रो


13. Lord Hardinge I -
हरदिन


14. Lord Dalhousie -
हाउस

15. Lord Reading - Reading

16. Lord Irwin - Ironman

17. Lord Willingdon - Will discover

18. Lord Linlithgow - Lithium

19. Lord Wavell - Wave

20. Lord Mountbatten – Battery

Interim Goverment of 1946:

On 2nd September 1946, the newly-elected Constituent Assembly formed an interim government of India which existed till 15th August 1947. The executive branch of the interim government was served by the viceroy's executive council that was headed by the Viceroy of India. It was composed of 12 members including 3 Muslims nominated by Congress. It was for the first time since the coming of British that the Government of India was in Indian's hand. On 26th October, five nominees of the League joined the Government. Congress appointees redesigned to make room for the League nominees (Two seats were already vacant while Mr. Sarat Bose, Syed Ali Zahir and Sir Shafat Ahmed Khan resigned). The portfolios of the composite fourteen-member government were as follows:

Members of Interim Government

Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

Vice President of the Executive Council, External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations

Vallabhbhai Patel

Home, Information and Broadcasting

Baldev Singh

Defence

Dr. John Mithai

Industries and supplies

C. Rajagopalachari

Education

C.H Bhabha

Works, Mines and Power

Rajendra Prasad

Food and Agriculture

 

 

 

 

 

1885 - Indian National Congress was formed.

 

1905 -  Partition of Bengal by Curzon.

 

1906 - All India Muslim league was formed.

 

1911 - Annulment of the partition of Bengal.

 

1917 - Champaran movement

 

1919 - Rowlatt Act passed The act curbed the fundamental rights such as freedom of expression and strengthened the police powers.

 

1919 - Jallianwalabagh Massacre. In protest, Tagore renounced his knighthood.

 

1920 - Khilafat movement. Gandhi took it as an opportunity for Muslim-Hindu unity and supported the movement.

 

1920 - Non-Cooperation movement. British titles were surrendered. The import of foreign cloth fell drastically between 1920 and 1922.

 

1920 - Gandhi called off the Non-Cooperation Movement.

 

1922 - Chauri chaura incident - killing 22 policemen.

 

1927- Simon Commission- the Commission was to recommend further constitutional reforms. It was headed by Sir John Simon. It contained all-white members. 

         When Simon came to Indian he was greeted with black flags as a mark of protest by the Indians with raised slogans stating - "Simon Go Back".

 

1928-Nehru Report: It demanded responsible government advocated dominion states. It was not for complete independence. It demanded universal suffrage. It rejected separated communal elections.

 

1929-Irwin Offer: It proposed a vague offer of 'dominion status' for India in an unspecified future and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution after the publication of the Simon Report.

 

1929 - Lahore Session of Congress: The president was Jawahar Lal Nehru. It took the decision boycotting Round Table Conference. "Purna Swaraj" was adopted as the main aim of the Congress under the presidentship of J.L.Nehru. It launched a program of civil disobedience. On Dec 31, 1929, Tricolor was hoisted at the Shore of Ravi.

 

1930 - Civil Disobedience Movement started with the Dandi March on 12th March 1930 to break the salt law under the leadership of Gandhi. 26th January 1930 - observed as "Independence day" all 

          over the country.

 

1930 - First Round Table Conference: It was the first-ever conference arranged between British and Indians as equal.          Congress boycotted it. However, Motilal Nehru, Liberals, and princes attended it.

 

1931 - Second Round Table Conference: Gandhi attended only one round table conference and that is the second roundtable conference.

 

1931 - Gandhi-Irwin pact: It offered that all political prisoners would be released except Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev. The right to make salt was accepted. Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement and participate in the second session of the Round Table Conference.

 

1932 - Third Round Table Conference: Majority leaders of INC did not participate. The outcome of the conference was published on a "White paper" based on which the British government passed the Government of India Act of 1935.

 

1932 - Ramsay MacDonald proposed separate electorate for minority community including Dalits. The proposal was supported by B.R.Ambedkar but it was fully opposed by Gandhi.

 

1932 - Poona Pact: Gandhi felt that separate electorate would disintegrate the society on caste lines and would lead to permanent division in the society. To avoid such a situation Gandhi went on for a hunger strike for 21 days in Yerrawada central jail. The issue was finally resolved between B.R.Ambedkar and Gandhi by signing the historic Poona Pact. Gandhi devoted himself to the Harijan Cause, for which he started a newspaper called "Harijan".

 

1935 - Government of India act 1935 prescribed provincial autonomy and the government announced elections to the provincial legislatures in 1937. Congress formed government in 6 out of 11 provinces.

 

1942 - Cripps Missions: The British government wanted India to fully co-operate to it during World War-II and made few proposals to League and Congress and promised them of independence after the war. But the proposals were rejected by both the parties and hence the Cripps Mission was a failure.

 

1942 - Gandhi called for the Quit India movement, "DO or DIE" to fight the British. Communication and symbols of the state authority were attacked all over the country.

 

1945 - Wavell Plan: which suggested that all portfolios except Defence would be held by the Indian members. The Plan also suggested the reconstitution of the Viceroy's Executive Council and the political parties have to nominate few candidates from their party out of whom the viceroy would select the candidate of his choice for the Executive Council.

 

1945 - Shimla Conference: To discuss these proposals and for a better future India, Wavell called all the political parties for their opinion to Shimla and this conference is popularly called as Shimla conference. Differences arose between Congress and the League about the representation of the Muslim community. The conference was a failure.

 

1946 - Cabinet Mission: The mission consisted of Lord Pethick-Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India, Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade and A. V. Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty. The mission suggested that India should remain united and constitute itself as a loose federation with some autonomy for Muslim majority areas. Both Congress and League did not agree to specific details of the proposal.

 

1946 - Direct Action Day Muslim League announced 16th august 1946 as Direct action day. On this day riots broke in Calcutta lasting for several days. By March 1947 violence spread to different parts of  the  northern India.

 

1947 - Indian Independence Act 1947: It was the Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and it received the royal assent on 18 July 1947. According to this act the British India was to be divided into two states namely India and Pakistan.

 

15thAugust,1947-"Independence Day" India became independent.