State Political System

State Governments in India are the governments ruling 28 states and 8 union Territories of India and the head of the council of Ministers in a state is the Chief Minister. Power is divided between the Union Government and state governments. While the union government handles military and external affairs etc., whereas the state government deals with internal security (through state Police) and other state issues. Income for the union government is from Custom Duty, Excise Tax & Income Tax etc, while state government income comes from Sales Tax (VAT), Stamp Duty, now these have been subsumed under CGST, SGST—components of GST.

Each state has a Legislative Assembly. A state legislature that has one house, known as State Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha), is an Unicameral legislature.

A state legislature that has two houses known as State Legislative Assembly and State Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad), is a Bicameral Legislature. The Vidhan Sabha is the Lower House and corresponds to the Lok Sabha, the Vidhan Parishad is the Upper House and corresponds to the Rajya Sabha of Indian Parliament.

The Sarkaria Commission was set up to review the Balance Of Power between states and the union. The union government can dissolve a state government in favour of President’s Rule if necessary.

  Ø State Legislature: 
      can be 1) Unicameral (one House) or 2) Bicameral (two Houses). 
Six Indian states, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana and Uttar Pradesh, (Acronym to remember: TUK BAM) have bicameral Legislatures, in these states the upper house is called State Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad), one-third of whose members are elected every two years. 

This house can be created or abolished on the recommendation of state Legislative Assembly.

Ø Legislative Council(Vidhan Parishad): 

                                                        Also known as Upper House  like Rajya Sabha is a permanent house & can not be dissolved.

     Strength: Its strength can’t exceed 1/3 of the strength of State legislative assembly, Subject to a minimum of 40. Members are elected in 5 different constituency, like:

  Ø One third (1/3rd) of the members are elected by representatives of the Local Authorities (like Municipalities, Zilla Parishads, Block Parishads etc)

  Ø One third (1/3rd) of the members are elected by members of the Legislative Assembly (the same person can’t be a member of both the houses)

  Ø One-twelfth (1/12th) of the members are elected by the Graduates in the state

  Ø One-twelfth (1/12th) of the members are elected by the Teachers in the state

  Ø The remaining members are nominated by the Governor. Those nominated by   the Governor should have special knowledge or practical experience in     Literature, science, art, co-operative movement and social service.  
      
Ø The remaining members are nominated by the Governor. Those nominated by the Governor should have special knowledge or practical experience in Literature, science, art, co-operative movement and social service.

  Ø  Tenure: MLAs have a term of 6 years while 1/3 of them retire every 2 years.

  Ø Qualification: age should be 30 years at least.

  Ø Election: 1/3 are elected by local bodies, one third by the legislative assembly, 1/12 by Uni. Graduates, similar proportion by teachers, 1/6 nominated by Governor from among those persons who distinguish themselves in science, literature or social- services. 
  Ø Chairman: The council elects a Chairman & a Vice-Chairman among its members.

  Ø Legislative Assembly  (Vidhan Sabha)

                                                      Also known as Lower House also, Just like Lok Sabha.

  Ø Strength: It should not exceed 500 & not less than 60 members (It varies with the population of the state concerned). (However, there are members. in the legislative assembly of Sikkim). It consists of directly elected representative.   

  Ø Tenure: Has a term of 5 years but can be dissolved by Governor earlier also can be extended by one year during National Emergency.

Qualification: here, the minimum age is 25 years. The council of Minister is collectively responsible to the Legislative assembly. The assembly is chooses its own Speaker & Deputy Speaker who can be removed by the council of Minister. CM is the leader of the house.   

=>State Police System:

 

=> District Government Admn.Structure: